Does varicella zoster become latent in nerve ganglia?


Where does varicella zoster virus become latent?

After a primary infection of chickenpox (varicella) (usually in childhood), VZV establishes a latent infection in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (1, 2).

Does varicella zoster virus maintain a latent state in nerve cells?

Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis.

Where does the chickenpox virus lay dormant in the body?

Once you have had chickenpox the virus lies dormant (inactive) in the nerves of the spinal cord and can reactivate later in life, this is known as shingles.

In which cell type does varicella zoster virus undergo latency?

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic virus that establishes latency in sensory and autonomic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). VZV DNA has been detected in neurons of sympathetic, enteric, trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (TG and DRG, respectively) [1,2].

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What causes the varicella-zoster virus to reactivate?

The primary factors that impact a person’s cellular immunity are age and medical conditions or medications that suppress the immune system. Post-pregnancy and menopausal hormonal fluctuations in women have also been linked to VZV reactivation.

How does one get varicella-zoster virus?

Chickenpox is transmitted from person to person by directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucus of an infected person. The virus can also be transmitted through the air by coughing and sneezing.

Are humans the only reservoir for varicella zoster virus?

Humans are the only reservoir of VZV, and disease occurs only in humans. After primary infection as varicella (chickenpox), VZV remains latent in the sensory-nerve ganglia and can reactivate later, causing herpes zoster (shingles).

Is varicella a DNA or RNA virus?

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)

VZV is a DNA virus and is a member of the herpesvirus group. Like other herpesviruses, VZV persists in the body as a latent infection after the primary (first) infection; VZV persists in sensory nerve ganglia.

How does the varicella-zoster virus stay dormant?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes varicella (chickenpox). Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Once the illness resolves, the virus remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia.

Why am I not immune to chickenpox after having it?

Once chickenpox heals, most people become immune to the virus. It won’t be reactivated because VZV typically stays dormant in the body of a healthy person. In rare cases, it may re-emerge to cause another episode of chickenpox.

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Does chicken pox stay in your body forever?

Once you catch chickenpox, the virus usually stays in your body. You probably will not get chickenpox again, but the virus can cause shingles in adults. A chickenpox vaccine can help prevent most cases of chickenpox, or make it less severe if you do get it.