What tissues does influenza affect?
The flu affects your whole body—including your nose, throat and lungs—and can lead to serious complications in those with chronic illness.
Which body system does influenza target?
Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs. Influenza is commonly called the flu, but it’s not the same as stomach “flu” viruses that cause diarrhea and vomiting.
How does influenza affect cells?
The influenza virus enters the host cell by having its hemagglutinin bind to the sialic acid found on glycoproteins or glycolipid receptors of the host. The cell then endocytoses the virus. In the acidic environment of the endosomes, the virus changes shape and fuses its envelope with the endosomal membrane.
What human cells does influenza infect?
After influenza virus infection, respiratory epithelial cells release inflammatory chemokines that recruit NK cells to the site of infection (12). As a lytic virus, numerous influenza virus particles are released from the infected epithelia and macrophages (5, 9, 33).
What is the incubation period for flu?
The incubation period of influenza is 2 days long on average but may range from 1 to 4 days in length.
What kills the flu virus in the body?
Fever—Fevers fight influenza viruses.
Because viruses are sensitive to temperature changes and cannot survive above normal body heat, your body uses fever to help destroy them.
Does influenza stay in your body forever?
Unfortunately, flu viruses mutate (change) each year. So getting sick once doesn’t protect you from the flu forever. Some years, the change in the flu virus is slight. So if you do get the flu, it’s mild.
How does the flu invade cells?
When the influenza virus infects a host cell its goal is to produce many copies of itself that go on to attack even more cells. A viral enzyme, called polymerase, is key to this process. It both copies the genetic material of the virus and steers the host cell machinery towards the synthesis of viral proteins.
How does the flu virus gain entry into the target cell?
The influenza entry pathway. Influenza viruses bind to receptors containing sialic acid on the cell surface. Virus particles are then endocytosed and enter early endosomes. Subsequently the viruses are trafficked to late endosomes where the low pH triggers viral fusion.