What is the receptor of influenza virus?
For influenza viruses, it has been known for a long time that the viral attachment protein, hemagglutinin (HA), binds to and uses sialic acid-containing molecules as receptors.
What protein does flu bind to?
To infect cells without getting stuck in the mucus, influenza A relies on a balance between two proteins on the surface of its viral particles: the receptor-binding protein hemagglutinin (HA) and the cleaving protein neuraminidase (NA).
Which receptor of the influenza virus is most involved in binding to the respiratory cells?
The influenza viral spike that attaches to the cell receptor is the HA protein – hemagglutinin. The cell receptor is sialic acid – a small sugar that is attached to many different proteins on the cell surface.
What cell type is influenza?
Influenza viruses primarily target airway epithelial cells via α2,3- and α2,6-type receptors, but the distribution of these receptors in many species is uncertain and may be a significant factor influencing infection.
What human cells does influenza infect?
After influenza virus infection, respiratory epithelial cells release inflammatory chemokines that recruit NK cells to the site of infection (12). As a lytic virus, numerous influenza virus particles are released from the infected epithelia and macrophages (5, 9, 33).
Does influenza virus lyse cells?
In addition to the neutralization of cell-free virus by antibodies to HA and the interference of virus release from infected cells by antibodies to neuraminidase (NA), influenza virus-specific antibodies bind to infected cells and are able to lyse the virus-infected cells through activation of complement (complement- …
What is the life cycle of influenza virus?
The influenza virus life cycle can be divided into the following stages: entry into the host cell; entry of vRNPs into the nucleus; transcription and replication of the viral genome; export of the vRNPs from the nucleus; and assembly and budding at the host cell plasma membrane.
How does the flu virus multiply?
Influenza A is an RNA virus, meaning that it reproduces itself inside the nucleus. Most viruses replicate in a cell’s cytoplasm, outside the nucleus.
What does the flu do to your cells?
Once in your nose, the virus sets up residence, infecting the cells in your nasal passageways and airways. The virus enters a cell and replicates, making daughter viruses (aka copies of itself) that then go and infect more cells nearby. This continues until more and more of your cells are infected.